African Growth & Opportunity Act

The trade policy that allows for African Exports into the U.S

The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) is an active policy that provides eligible sub-Saharan African countries with duty-free access to the United States’ market for over 1,800 products, in addition to the more than 5,000 products that are eligible for duty-free access under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program.

 

African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA) Extension act of 2023. 

WASHINGTON – Sen. John Kennedy (R-La.) today (27 Sept 2023) introduced the AGOA Extension Act of 2023, a bill that would extend the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) through September 2045. The AGOA has been key in helping the United States work with sub-Saharan Africa to facilitate trade, reduce poverty, promote democracy and counter China’s growing influence in the region.

Frequently Asked Questions

Get a quick start from the Q&A’s below

1. WHAT IS AGOA?

Since its enactment in 2000, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has been at the core of U.S. economic policy and commercial engagement with Africa.

 

What Is AGOAExport Duty-Free to the United States
Grow your market for African products
Access funding & investment opportunities
Grow your business through competitiveness

 

To meet AGOA’s rigorous eligibility requirements, countries must establish or make continual progress toward establishing a market-based economy, the rule of law, political pluralism, and the right to due process. Additionally, countries must eliminate barriers to U.S. trade and investment, enact policies to reduce poverty, combat corruption and protect human rights.

 

By providing new market opportunities, AGOA has helped bolster economic growth, promoted economic and political reform, and improved U.S. economic relations in the region.

 

38 countries are eligible for AGOA benefits in 2020.  In 2015, Congress passed legislation modernizing and extending the program to 2025.

2. WHICH COUNTRIES CAN EXPORT UNDER AGOA?

AGOA Eligible Countries

 

The legislation authorized the President of the United States to determine which sub-Saharan African countries would be eligible for AGOA on an annual basis. The eligibility criteria were to improve labor rights and movement toward a market-based economy. Each year, the President evaluates the sub-Saharan African countries and determines which countries should remain eligible.

 

Current Countries Eligible for AGOA Benefits

 

AGOA Eligible Countries

 

Countries’ inclusion has fluctuated with changes in the local political environment. In December 2009, for example, Guinea, Madagascar, and Niger were all removed from the list of eligible countries; by October 2011, though, eligibility was restored to Guinea and Niger, and by June 2014, to Madagascar as well. Notice was given that Burundi would lose its AGOA eligibility status as of 1 January 2016. In August, 2017, Togo was recognized as an eligible country.

 

On 1 January 2022, the United States removed Ethiopia, Mali and Guinea from the AGOA programme over alleged human rights violations and recent coups. In a statement the US Trade Representative explained the removal was “due to actions taken by each of their governments in violation of the AGOA Statute”. As of January 1, 2022, 36 countries are eligible to participate in AGOA.

From Wikipedia

3. ARE YOU LOOKING FOR AGOA LEGISLATION DOCUMENTS?

The original AGOA legislation was signed into law as Public Law 106-200 during May 2000.

 

AGOA Act Full Document

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD ORIGINAL AGOA LEGISLATION

 

There have been subsequent updates to the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) legislation which were passed by the US Congress – a good example of this is the Miscellaneous Trade and Technical Corrections Act of 2004. Other updates, such as the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004, extended the legislation beyond its original 8-year term.

 

Furthermore, additional amendments addressed aspects of the AGOA legislation that were set for earlier expiry, for example the special wearing apparel provisions that granted beneficiary countries favourable rules of origin pertaining to exports of clothing under AGOA. The most recent extension of AGOA, covering the period 2015 – 2015, is known as the AGOA Enhancement Act of 2015.

4. DOES AN EXPORTER NEED TO REGISTER BEFORE EXPORTING UNDER AGOA?

So you want to know if you need to “register” somewhere in order to export under AGOA.

 

The quick answer is No, an exporter is not required to “register” under the AGOA legislation in order to take advantage of its benefits when exporting goods to the US.

 

Having said that, each country has different rules and regulations and many countries require that an exporter be registered for export purposes with local customs or revenue authorities (this is unrelated to AGOA per se). Often this also involves receiving a unique exporter authorization number. These are national measures and different from country to country: it is advisable to contact the customs or revenue authorities in the home country to see what registration measures and related formalities may be required.

 

On African Trade Platform, registration is necessary as a security measure to ensure the safety and peace of mind for buyers and sellers. Sellers cannot upload a product without providing key details, likewise, buyers cannot bid or offer to purchase without also supplying key documentation.

5. WHAT ARE THE LATEST AGOA UPDATES?

AGOA Act DocumentSection 110 of the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 (“the Act”), 19 U.S.C. § 3705 note, states that the President shall submit a report to Congress on the trade and investment relationship between the United States and sub-Saharan African countries no later than one year after the enactment of the Act, and biennially thereafter. This reporting function was delegated to the United States Trade Representative (USTR) in Executive Order 13720 of February 26, 2016.

 

The current report covers the period since then (July 2020 to the present). As required by the legislation, the report provides a description of the status of trade and investment between the United States and sub-Saharan Africa, changes in country eligibility for AGOA benefits, an analysis of country compliance with the AGOA eligibility criteria, an overview of regional integration efforts in sub-Saharan Africa, and a summary of U.S. trade capacity building efforts. As required by section 110, this report also fulfills the statutory requirements in the Act to report to Congress on potential trade agreements.

6. HOW CAN A COUNTRY QUALIFY TO BECOME AN AGOA BENEFICIARY COUNTRY?

The US President may designate a country as a beneficiary Sub-Saharan African country eligible for AGOA preferences if he determines that the country meets the eligibility criteria set forth in: (1) Section 104 of AGOA (see 19 U.S.C. 3703); and (2) section 502 of the 1974 US Trade Act (see 19 U.S.C. 2462).

 

Only countries in Sub-Saharan Africa can be AGOA beneficiaries, since the legislation specifically seeks to enhance the trade, investment and political relationship between the US and Sub-Saharan Africa. In order for a country to qualify as an AGOA beneficiary, and to maintain its beneficiary status, it must meet a number of criteria set out for this purposes by the AGOA legislation as well as by the US Trade Act of 1974 (see links above). A country must also be eligible for the US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), whose eligibility requirements and those of AGOA essentially overlap.

 

While GSP eligibility does not imply AGOA eligibility, 47 of the 48 Sub-Saharan African countries are currently GSP eligible.

 

Among the required criteria, a country must have established, or make continual progress towards establishing, a market based economy, political pluralism, respect private property rights, incorporate an open rules-based trading system, eliminate barriers to US trade and investment, respect internationally recognized human rights, protect worker rights and so forth.

 

In addition, the country may not engage in activities that undermine US national security or foreign policy interests.

 

Countries that do not meet these criteria will lose their AGOA beneficiary status. The US routinely assesses ongoing compliance with these criteria and in the event of a country no longer meeting the criteria will place that country on notice pending suspension from receiving AGOA preferences. Under the most recent AGOA legislation (2015), a variety of stakeholders including private organizations and entities have the right to apply for an AGOA beneficiary’s status under the AGOA legislation to be reviewed, should there be evidence of a country not or no longer meeting the AGOA eligibility requirements

 

AGOA’s (original) eligibility criteria – Section 104 of the Act

(a) The President is authorized to designate a sub-Saharan African country as an eligible sub-Saharan African country if the President determines that the country (see Note*) :

 

(1) has established, or is making continual progress toward establishing–

(A) a market-based economy that protects private property rights, incorporates an open rules-based trading system, and minimises government interference in the economy through measures such as price controls, subsidies, and government ownership of economic assets;

(B) the rule of law, political pluralism, and the right to due process, a fair trial, and equal protection under the law;

(C) the elimination of barriers to United States trade and investment, including by–

(i) the provision of national treatment and measures to create an environment conducive to domestic and foreign investment;

(ii) the protection of intellectual property; and

(iii) the resolution of bilateral trade and investment disputes;

(D) economic policies to reduce poverty, increase the availability of healthcare and educational opportunities, expand physical infrastructure, promote the development of private enterprise, and encourage the formation of capital markets through micro-credit or other programs;

(E) a system to combat corruption and bribery, such as signing and implementing the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions; and

(F) protection of internationally recognized worker rights, including the right of association, the right to organise and bargain collectively, a prohibition on the use of any form of forced or compulsory labour, a minimum age for the employment of children, and acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health;

 (2) (A country that) does not engage in activities that undermine United States national security or foreign policy interests; and

(3) does not engage in gross violations of internationally recognised human rights or provide support for acts of international terrorism and cooperates in international efforts to eliminate human rights violations and terrorist activities.

(b) Ongoing Compliance:

 

If the President determines that an eligible Sub-Saharan African country is not making continual progress in meeting the requirements described in subsection (a)(1), the President shall terminate the designation of the country made pursuant to subsection (a).

 

. Note* : Proclamation 7350 delegated to the United States Trade Representative (USTR) the authority to determine whether these countries have met the two requirements described above.

 

7. HOW LONG DO AGOA BENEFITS LAST?

The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) forms part of US legislation and as such may be amended, extended or repealed for example through an Act of Congress.

 

Consequently, the status as an AGOA beneficiary is not permanent but rather based on the ongoing compliance with the AGOA eligibility requirements. A country that no longer fulfills these criteria may lose its AGOA status following a notice period; in such cases that country would revert to that of any other country without AGOA status (which may entail lesser GSP preferences, or even no preferential market access at all). When a country that is not AGOA eligible – or which has lost its AGOA status – meets the AGOA eligibility criteria, the President of the US may consider reinstating that country’s AGOA beneficiary status.

 

Under the most recent extension of AGOA, its preferences and privileges were extended by an additional 10 years from 2015 to 2025. This extension included the special preferences for wearing apparel, which allows beneficiaries subject to conditions to utilize imported fabric in their manufacturer of AGOA-compliant garments (previously, the special preferences for apparel exporters were more limited in duration).

8. WHAT BENEFITS DOES AGOA PROVIDE FOR TRADE

The African Growth and Opportunity (AGOA)’s benefits go beyond mere market access, and include closer collaboration between the US and African countries in other areas, technical and economic assistance, aid, investment funding, political and strategic collaboration in certain fields, and so on. One of the key benefits however remains preferential market access to the US market for over 6,500 products when these are produced and (also) originate in Africa.

 

By removing US import duties on products covered by the AGOA legislation, producers and exporters in AGOA beneficiary countries receive a competitive advantage over exporters in other countries who may need to pay standard US import duties, which for certain textile articles might be more than 30% on the value of the product. This is a win-win scenario both for African producers and exporters as well as for US importers and consumers, the latter who may benefit from more competitive sourcing of products, compared to sourcing from elsewhere. Products that are AGOA eligible may thus claim duty-free status when imported into the US. AGOA products use the code ‘D’ in the US Harmonized Tariff Schedule to reflect their AGOA status when the relevant paperwork is filed on importation into the US. Apparel products are classified separately in the tariff database.

 

‘D’ – AGOA duty-free treatment

 

‘A’ – Generalized System of Preferences

etc.

While even a small duty rate can translate into a significant competitive advantage for a producers exporting to the US from Africa, there is a correlation between the size of the standard US import duty and the relative benefit that a US importer sourcing products from Africa can claim: the higher the duty saving, the greater the relative advantage of using AGOA when clearing goods for import into the US. In highly competitive sectors where even a small percentage saving can translate into a valuable advantage, AGOA preferences can play an important role in helping to facilitate trade between Africa and the US.

9. WHAT PRODUCTS ARE COVERED BY AGOA?

AGOA covers more than 6,000 products using the HTS-8 tariff classification. This includes approximately 5,000 products (tariff lines) that fall under the GSP as well as more than 1,000 tariff lines that are duty-free only for exports to the US from AGOA beneficiaries. A searchable list of products eligible for duty-free export to the US is available at this link (status: 2017).

What is the HTS-8 product classification?

The HTS refers to the US Harmonised Tariff System nomenclature, and is largely based on the internationally standardized Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System managed by the World Customs Organisation. It classifies all traded products into sections, chapters, headings, sub-headings and so on.

 

Let’s take, for example, “pineapples in packages“:

  • Section II represents vegetable products
  • Chapter 08 covers edible fruit and nuts, peel of citrus/melons
  • Heading 0804 covers dates, figs, pineapples, avocadoes etc.
  • Sub-Heading 0804.30 covers pineapples
  • The 8-digit sub-division 0804.30.40 covers ‘pineapples in crates or other packages’

 

Using the above example:

Tariff line 0804.30.40 has a standard US import duty of 2.11c / kg (as of 2017)

It also has the AGOA ‘D’ code in the US tariff book, meaning that when imported into the US from an AGOA beneficiary, this import duty is not applicable.

10. HOW DO I ACCESS DUTY-FREE TREATMENTS FOR MY EXPORTS?

In order for a product to qualify for AGOA preferences, a number of factors are considered (AGOA coverage falls within the area of responsibility of the US International Trade Commission, the US Congress and others).

These include the following:

(1) the product must be included in the list of GSP-eligible articles (without exclusions), or

(2) included in the list of new AGOA products (denoted ‘D‘), or be a qualifying apparel or textile item;

(3) It must be imported into the United States directly from the AGOA beneficiary country or pass through another country in a sealed container and addressed to a location in the United States;

(4) The article must be the growth, product, or manufacture of the AGOA beneficiary country by fulfilling the relevant Rules of Origin requirements for general or apparel items respectively

(5) If foreign materials are imported into the AGOA country first, to be used in the production of an AGOA-eligible product, the sum of the cost of the materials produced in the AGOA beneficiary country, plus the costs of processing, must equal at least 35 percent of the product’s value when the product is sold for export into the United States (see section on Rules of Origin);

(6) In the case of clothing/apparel, the 35% rule does not apply directly, instead, the goods need to comply with the respective textile and apparel Rules of Origin requirements;

(7) The US importer must request duty-free treatment under AGOA on the relevant customs entry form (Form 7501) by placing an “D” in column 27 in front of the US tariff number that identifies the imported article.

11. HOW DOES AGOA BENEFIT U.S FIRMS?

By creating tangible incentives for African countries to implement economic and commercial reform policies, AGOA contributes to better market opportunities and stronger commercial partners in Africa for U.S. companies. The Act should help forge stronger commercial ties between Africa and the United States, while it helps to integrate Africa into the global economy. U.S. firms may find new opportunities in privatizations of African state-owned enterprises, or in partnership with African companies in infrastructure projects.

12. WHY THE NEED FOR AN AGOA II BILL?

The need for AGOA II legislation was developed in part to improve upon and clarify some of the specific provisions that were not addressed in the original AGOA legislation (or AGOA I). AGOA II is part of the Trade Act of 2002 which President Bush signed into law on August 6, 2002.

13. WHAT SPECIFIC CHANGES DID THE AGOA II LEGISLATION MAKE TO THE ORIGINAL AGOA LAW?

Category AGOA I AGOA II
Knit-to-Shape The term “fabric” interpreted by U.S.Customs as excluding components that are “knit-to-shape” (i.e.components that take their shape in the knitting

process, rather than being cut from a bolt of cloth).

Knit-to-shape apparel qualifies for AGOA benefits.
Lesser Developed Countries Duty-free treatment for apparel articles assembled in less developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, regardless of the origin of

fabric.

LDC apparel is eligible for duty-free treatment regardless of the origin of the fabric and regardless origin of yarn.
Botswana and Namibia Not treated as less developed countries because per capita GNP in 1998 exceeded $1,500. Specially designated as less developed countries.
Hybrid Cutting Under U.S. Customs interpretation, cutting of fabric must occur either in

U.S. or AGOA countries, but not both.

Hybrid cutting (i.e., cutting that occurs both in U.S. and in AGOA countries) does not render fabric ineligible.
Volume cap on duty-free treatment for apparel made from fabric made in the AGOA region or, for lesser developed beneficiary countries from fabric made anywhere. Applicable percentages increase through October 1, 2007. Applicable percentages doubled.

14. WHAT SPECIFIC CHANGES DID THE AGOA ACCELERATION ACT OF 2004 MAKE TO THE ORIGINAL AGOA LAW?

15. WHAT SPECIFIC CHANGES DID THE AFRICA INVESTMENT INCENTIVE ACT OF 2006 (AGOA IV) MAKE TO THE ORIGINAL LAW?

16. WHAT IS THE ``ABUNDANT SUPPLY`` PROVISION?

AGOA IV provides for special rules for fabrics or yarns produced in commercial quantities (or “abundant supply”) in any designated sub-Saharan African country for use in qualifying apparel articles. Upon receiving a petition from any interested party, the International Trade Commission will determine the quantity of such fabrics or yarns that must be sourced from the region before applying the third country fabric provision. It also provides for 30 million square meter equivalents (SMEs) of denim to be determined to be in abundant supply beginning October 1, 2006. The U.S. International Trade Commission will provide further guidance on how it will implement this provision.

17. WHAT BENEFITS ARE PROVIDED FOR BOTSWANA AND NAMIBIA?

AGOA II permits Botswana and Namibia to qualify for the “Special Rule,” which permits lesser developed AGOA beneficiary countries to utilize fabric manufactured anywhere in the world (extended until September 30, 2007 under AGOA III). Since Botswana’s and Namibia’s per capita GNP exceeded $1,500 (the 1998 World Bank level), they were not designated as a lesser-developed beneficiary countries and were not eligible for the Special Rule under the original AGOA legislation. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) continues to grant lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Botswana and Namibia, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule. While an amendment to the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 granted lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Mauritius, AGOA IV did not continue to grant Mauritius lesser-developed beneficiary country status.

18. WHAT CONDITIONS ARE PLACED ON PARTICIPATION BY AFRICAN COUNTRIES?

The President may designate Sub-Saharan African countries as eligible to receive the benefits of the Act if they are making progress in such areas as: establishment of market-based economies; development of political pluralism and the rule of law; elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment; protection of intellectual property; efforts to combat corruption; policies to reduce poverty, increase the availability of health care and educational opportunities; protection of human rights and worker rights, and elimination of certain practices of child labor. Progress in each area is not a requirement for AGOA eligibility.

19. DOES THE UNITED STATES HAVE THE RIGHT TO SET ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES?

The criteria are standards which the Africans themselves have espoused and most are striving to uphold. But Congress never intended AGOA to be a blank check for all African countries, without regard to performance. It was meant to offer tangible incentives for African governments to improve their political and economic governance, not to underwrite poor policies.

20. WHAT ARE THE PROVISIONS GOVERNING APPAREL IMPORTS?

AGOA provides duty-free and quota-free treatment for eligible apparel articles made in qualifying sub-Saharan African countries through 2015. Qualifying articles include: apparel made of U.S. yarns and fabrics; apparel made of sub-Saharan African (regional) yarns and fabrics until 2015, subject to a cap; apparel made in a designated lesser-developed country of third-country yarns and fabrics until 2012, subject to a cap; apparel made of yarns and fabrics not produced in commercial quantities in the United States; textile or textile articles originating entirely in one or more lesser-developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries; certain cashmere and merino wool sweaters; and eligible handloomed, handmade, or folklore articles, and ethnic printed fabrics. Under a Special Rule for lesser-developed beneficiary countries, those countries with a per capita GNP under $1,500 in 1998, will enjoy an additional preference in the form of duty-free/quota-free access for apparel made from fabric originating anywhere in the world. The Special Rule is in effect until September 30, 2012 and is subject to a cap. AGOA IV continues the designation of Botswana and Namibia as lesser-developed beneficiary countries (click here for further details on apparel eligibility provisions
).

21. WHICH COUNTRIES FALL UNDER THE PER CAPITA GNP CEILING FOR THE SPECIAL RULE?

All Sub-Saharan African countries meet the per capita GNP requirements of the Special Rule with the exception of the following: Botswana, Gabon, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, and South Africa. However, countries must meet the general AGOA eligibility requirements and the requirements for apparel benefits in order to qualify for the Special Rule. AGOA II grants Lesser Developed Beneficiary Country status to Botswana and Namibia, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) continues to grant lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Botswana and Namibia.

22. WHEN DO THE APPAREL BENEFITS TAKE EFFECT?

Although the apparel benefits take effect October 1, 2000, beneficiary countries must first have an effective visa system in place to prevent illegal transhipment and use of counterfeit documentation. They must also institute enforcement and verification procedures. Details were disseminated to African governments following a cable instruction to all U.S. embassies in Sub-Saharan Africa on September 21, 2000. Countries must also be beneficiary developing countries under the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which includes 45 Sub-Saharan African countries.

23. WHAT DOES THE TERM ``KNIT-TO-SHAPE`` MEAN?

Components that take their shape in the knitting process, rather than being cut from a bolt of cloth.

24. WHAT ARE THE ACT’S GSP PROVISIONS?

AGOA authorizes the President to provide duty-free treatment under GSP for any article after the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) have determined that the article is not import-sensitive when imported from African countries.  On December 21, 2000, the President extended duty-free treatment under GSP to AGOA-eligible countries for more than 1,800 tariff line items in addition to the standard GSP list of approximately 4,600 items available to non-AGOA GSP beneficiary countries.  The additional GSP line items which include such previously excluded items as footwear, luggage, handbags, watches, and flatware were implemented after an extensive process of public comment and review.  Sub-Saharan African GSP beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive need limitations.  In order for any Sub-Saharan African country to receive the liberalized GSP benefits it must first be GSP eligible under the existing criteria of that law. GSP is extended for Sub-Saharan African beneficiary countries until September 30, 2015.

25. HOW CAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES BECOME MORE FAMILIAR WITH THE BENEFITS OF THE ACT?

The U.S. Government has conducted technical assistance seminars in Africa and the United States to explain the benefits of the Act, in order to ensure that African countries are able to take maximum advantage of its provisions.

26. WHAT BENEFITS ARE PROVIDED FOR BOTSWANA AND NAMIBIA UNDER AGOA?

AGOA II permits Botswana and Namibia to qualify for the “Special Rule,” which permits lesser developed AGOA beneficiary countries to utilize fabric manufactured anywhere in the world (extended until September 30, 2007 under AGOA III). Since Botswana’s and Namibia’s per capita GNP exceeded $1,500 (the 1998 World Bank level), they were not designated as a lesser developed beneficiary country and were not eligible for the Special Rule under the original AGOA legislation.

 

The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) continues to grant lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Botswana and Namibia, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule. While an amendment to the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 granted lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Mauritius, AGOA IV did not continue to grant Mauritius lesser-developed beneficiary country status.

27. WHAT CONDITIONS ARE PLACED ON PARTICIPATION BY AFRICAN COUNTRIES?

The President may designate Sub-Saharan African countries as eligible to receive the benefits of the Act if they are making progress in such areas as: establishment of market-based economies; development of political  pluralism and the rule of law; elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment; protection of intellectual property; efforts to combat corruption; policies to reduce poverty, increase availability of health care and  educational opportunities; protection of human rights and worker rights, and elimination of certain practices of child labor. Progress in each area is not a requirement for AGOA eligibility.

28. HOW CAN SMES IN AFRICA DRIVE AGOA UTILIZATION STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT IN THEIR COUNTRIES?

SMEs should compel policy makers to capture & develop policies, initiatives that are responsive to their needs by engaging and letting their voice be heard for strategies to be developed and implemented and should drive sectoral stakeholder engagements.

In addition should serve/ be represented on all national committees driving the strategy development. Apart from that SMEs should request governments to form part of industry bodies and registered on national databases to create enabling environments for AGOA & GSP as well as should advocate to form part of all capacity building programs development of frameworks.

Opinion & Analysis

OCT ’23: Hope for Africa-US trade ties as bill seeks to extend AGOA by 20 years.

There is a strong possibility that Sub-Saharan Africa might enjoy an extension of another 20 years. Download

OCT ’23: The emergence of SME in sub-Saharan Africa

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are becoming an undeniable force across sub-Saharan Africa. They make up about 90% of businesses globally. Download

Webinar Q&A

Watch past AGOA Q&A sessions

For Q&A go to timestamp: 59:45

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The White House
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